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Diabetes Management: Key To Reducing Risk Of Neurological Complications

The World Health Organization reports that roughly 422 million individuals globally live with diabetes, which is projected to increase. Diabetes is a chronic ailment that impairs the body's capacity to process glucose, leading to elevated sugar levels in the blood. In the long run, heightened blood sugar levels can harm nerves throughout the body, resulting in neurological complications that substantially affect an individual's quality of life. Nevertheless, Dr Arohi Abhinav Jayaswal, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Bhagalpur, Bihar,shares that adequate management of diabetes can help prevent or alleviate these complications.

  • Neurological complications of diabetes can affect the peripheral nervous system, which controls the body's sensory and motor functions, and the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary processes like digestion and heart rate. Some common neurological complications of diabetes include peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and stroke.
  • Peripheral neuropathy is nerve damage affecting the extremities, including the hands, feet, and legs. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy can include tingling, numbness, burning, and pain in these areas. Over time, peripheral neuropathy can lead to a complete or partial loss of sensation in the affected areas, making it challenging to feel injuries or infections.
  • Autonomic neuropathy symptoms of autonomic neuropathy include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, and urinary incontinence.
  • Finally, people with diabetes are also at an increased risk of stroke, which occurs when blood flow towards the brain is disrupted, leading to damage or death of brain cells. Strokes can cause neurological symptoms, including difficulty speaking, weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, and vision or balance problems.


  • One of the most important is to maintain reasonable blood sugar control. Very high blood sugar levels can damage nerves over time, so keeping blood sugar levels within a healthy range is critical. This can be easily achieved through medication, diet, and exercise.
  • Medication is often necessary to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Several drugs are available, including insulin, which allows the body to use glucose more effectively, and oral medications that help regulate blood sugar levels.
  • The diet also plays a significant role in managing diabetes. Eating a balanced diet low in carbohydrates and sugar can help stabilise blood sugar levels. It's also essential to avoid food items such as sugary drinks and snacks that can cause large spikes in your blood sugar levels.
  • Exercise is another essential aspect of diabetes management. Regular physical activity can reduce complications and promote overall health. Speaking with a healthcare provider before starting an exercise program is very important, as they can help create a safe and effective plan.


Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are essential for people with diabetes. These regular check-ups can help identify potential complications early on when they are easier to treat. They can also provide an opportunity to adjust medication or lifestyle recommendations to optimize blood sugar control and reduce the risk of complications.

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